Oregon; jaw surgery; Dragon Ride; pilots; not in college

John & Donna McAdams
60155 Agate Road
Bend, OR 97702
Phone: 541-213-7771
July 2019

  • She’s not allowed to talk about the Lord at work, even with co-workers. (This rule doesn’t apply for any faith but Christianity.)

Dear Friends,

Greetings from beautiful, sunny Central Oregon, where we are enjoying many outdoor activities.

Donna’s jaw surgery was “successful.” Before the surgery, she used to have severe pain in her skull, but now she has almost no pain. Praise the Lord! On the left side, the surgeon couldn’t use her own disc because it was too damaged, so he inserted a temporary artificial disc. This means that she has to ration her talking, which, of course, takes a toll on her relationships and her ministry. A second surgery is scheduled for August 5 to remove the artificial disc. The theory is that, because the artificial disc separated the bones, her body is building up scar tissue to substitute as a disc. Please pray that her final new normal will be that she will be able to talk with ease.

But in spite of her jaw, she’s back to leading two Bible studies—she just has to rest her jaw a lot before and after. Brooke, who participates in one of the studies, is an administrator at a local college. She’s not allowed to talk about the Lord at work, even with co-workers. (This rule doesn’t apply for any faith but Christianity.) One evening just before the Bible study, when the women were sharing how they’re growing in the Lord, Donna told the group about something that’s been transforming her own walk with the Lord—when a verse jumps out at her during her devotions, she writes it down on a card and meditates on it through the day. After that study, Brooke started doing this, too. A few weeks later she told the group, “Now, because of these verses, I can’t stop thinking about the Lord. And because I can’t stop thinking about the Lord, I can’t stop talking about Him, even at work! Also, I have a lot of non-Christian friends. Now I’m talking with them about the Lord, too. And you know how I get the subject started? I tell them about all the ‘aha moments’ I have in our Bible study!”

The members of the local church that is working with the Great Country (GC) pilots discovered Dragon Ride. After reading it, they kept buying copies for each other, until somewhere between 60 and 75 copies had been distributed in the church. Then one of them called Donna to ask her to speak to them about how to share the gospel with the pilots because they felt like they weren’t very successful. Donna spoke for two hours because they prodded her not to stop. Then they asked her if she would give exactly the same talk again on another night! The second evening many more showed up, including the pastors, the missions committee, and even the Christians who work at the aviation company which trains the pilots! Now a lot more pilots are attending the weekly meetings that the church puts on for the pilots, and the church people feel like they are better equipped to talk with the pilots about the Lord.

Of the two of us, only John is teaching the pilots English once a week. He intersperses Bible stories with other lessons. And what is so amazing is that more of these pilots are attending the Chinese-language Bible study John leads. A Chinese woman, who loves the Lord with all her heart, opens her home and cooks a Chinese dinner for whoever will show up for the study. Then during the Bible study, she and her mother are able to bring home the gospel to the pilots. Please be praying for this study.

John is also being asked to preach more at our church. The church people love his sermons and can’t stop talking about them afterwards.

Seth graduated from Multnomah University in April with a degree in Business and Bible. This summer he’s working 16 hours a day, 7 days a week fighting wildfires to earn money to study for his Masters in Global Development, which starts in the fall. Please pray for his safety as he and his crew fight the fires. He is currently in Alaska fighting the 19,000 acre Shovel Creek Fire, which is near Fairbanks.

Praise God that Pastor Wu, whom we told you about in our last letter, has been released from prison. But many other GC brothers and sisters are still suffering in prison. Please keep them in your prayers.

In His Care,

John & Donna

The Missionary Enterprise in China

刘秉璋  | missionary | 姜鸣 Jiang Ming‘s post  | Atlantic | Sept 1906 Issue |  by Chester Holcombe |

“When the government and people of the United States are ready to return to a dignified and decent policy in the treatment of the Chinese, we shall easily secure a renewal of their confidence in us.”

With the rising tide of American interest in China, the unsatisfactory condition of our relations with that great and ancient nation, with the general unrest there, which is the inevitable consequence of movements toward a new and modern life, and the local and sporadic outbreaks of violence incident to such unrest, one hears again the old and familiar cry that the missionaries are responsible for at least the larger portion of the varied forms of hostility exhibited toward foreigners. Their persistent and impertinent attempts to force an alien and undesired religion upon the Chinese are, so it is confidently asserted, peculiarly offensive to officials and people alike, a hindrance to trade, and a menace to peaceful relations. The Boxer movement, it is pointed out, was an attempt, vain in result, to throw off the hateful missionary incubus, to rid the Chinese of a body of unwelcome interlopers who defamed their ancient and cherished forms of belief, which are as good as ours, some will add, – and who sought to supplant them with another, wholly unsuited to their mental and spiritual conformation. The loss of life in that Boxer movement, confined almost wholly to missionaries and native converts, together with several more recent exhibitions of violence in which missionaries alone have suffered, are cited as full evidence of the correctness of this conclusion.

It might be pointed out that the Boxer uprising was an abortive attempt to drive all foreigners of every class from China, and thus to save the Empire from partition and distribution among the great cormorant Powers of Europe, – which was believed to be the distinct purpose and inevitable result of the continued presence of foreigners there; that, in fact, missionaries formed the only class of alien residents who had no part in the development of such a fear and frenzy; that they suffered most because they alone of all alien classes had established themselves at remote parts of the interior, in close touch with the people, and out of reach of battleship, cruiser, or any other means of defense or place of refuge. In a general raid against all foreigners, the missionary was first attacked because he was first at hand, and, to put it frankly and truthfully, he suffered because he was in or part of bad company; not because he was a missionary, but for the crime, in Chinese eyes, of being a foreigner.

So too, in response to the charge of attempting to force an alien and inappropriate form of belief upon a people well suited to and with their own, it might be said that, in the entire history of missionary effort in China, or in other parts of the Far East, nothing even remotely approaching the exercise of force has been attempted. To talk to persons who choose to listen, to throw wide the doors of chapels where natives who desire may hear the Christian faith explained and urged upon their attention, to sell at half cost or to give the Bible and Christian literature freely to those who may care to read them, to heal the sick, without cost, who come for medical treatment, to instruct children whose parents are desirous that they should receive education, – surely none or all of these constitute methods or practices to which the word force may be applied under any allowable use of the English language. And this, thus briefly summarized, constitutes the entire body of missionary effort in China. To put it in another form, there is no difference between the work of pioneer preachers in the far West, that of laborers or “settlement workers” in the slums of great cities, or of eloquent pastors of wealthy and fashionable churches in the Back Bay district of Boston or Fifth Avenue in New York, and that done by missionaries in China. If the last-named force the acceptance of Christianity upon their hearers, then so do all the others. The work is absolutely identical in character and method, differentiated from the others only by simple forms of presentation in order to reach the more effectively minds wholly unfamiliar with the truths presented. Those who assert that Christianity is wholly unsuited to the Chinese character, that the Chinese will not and cannot become sincere and loyal Christians, are most respectfully referred to the long list of native martyrs, of both sexes and all ages, who readily and gladly gave up their lives in the Boxer movement, rather than abjure the Christian faith.

It might further be added that unselfish men and devoted women, enthusiastic in what appears, to them at least, to be a great cause, who are ready to expatriate themselves and to abandon all their ambitions and their lives to its promotion in foreign lands, have as good a right to carry out their self-sacrificing wishes, to enter China and do their chosen work there by all proper methods, as have their fellow citizens who seek the same Empire in order to win a fortune by dealing in cotton goods, kerosene, silk, tea, or possibly in opium. They have precisely the same right, no greater and no less, to the protection and sympathetic assistance of their own government as any other class of citizens. To more than this, American missionaries have never made claim.

Beyond these brief and general statements, intended to correct certain widely prevalent misconceptions of fact, and to clear the ground for what is to follow, it is not the purpose of this article to denounce or defend evangelistic work in China or the presence of missionaries there. With the quality of the work done, the doctrines taught, or the agencies employed, this paper has nothing to do. After all, it is a matter of comparatively trifling importance what fellow foreigners may think of missionaries or missionary work on the other side of the world. Their approval or condemnation counts for little. What the Chinese themselves think, what is their attitude and that of their government toward the enterprise, are questions of vastly greater moment. To answer these questions from a purely secular standpoint, to deal with the missionary enterprise as a factor in the modernization of China, to explain the exact attitude and policy of the Imperial government toward it and the causes of friction, constantly growing more rare, between its promoters and Chinese officials and people, these together constitute the motive of this article. Neither conjecture nor hearsay will form the basis of conclusions reached, but facts gained through a long and necessarily close study of the missionary question in China, innumerable discussions, and much practical experience in the adjustment of so-called “missionary cases.”
In any effort to gain a correct understanding of this or other questions which affect our relations with the Chinese, certain characteristics of the race should be kept carefully in mind. They are an intellectual people, and possessed of fully the average amount of shrewd common sense, intermingled with some ancient and crude superstitions, which serve as a variant. With the single exception of the Emperor, their officials of all grades, from the highest to the lowest, are of and chosen from the people themselves, and local self-government exists there to an extent not seen elsewhere. In China the people are, in fact, masters of the situation, and a spirit of sturdy democracy is everywhere evident. They judge men or nations, much as we do, by what they do rather than what they say. Hence in any given conditions or circumstances, if we infer Chinese feelings or conduct from what our own would be in the same situation, we shall not go far wrong, always, however, bearing the fact in mind that they are more patient than we.

Then it is necessary to keep certain facts of Chinese history in plain sight. The first knowledge which the Chinese had of the Western world, by which is meant Western Europe and America, came through buccaneering expeditions, or piratical attacks, as they would now be called, upon the Chinese coasts by the Dutch, Portuguese, French, and Spaniards. In more modern times, barely seventy years ago in fact, the entering wedge to break open the barred doors of Chinese seclusion was driven home by the military power of Great Britain mainly in order to force a market for Indian opium, of which that Christian government held a monopoly. From that day to this every form of foreign enterprise in China, irrespective of character or nationality, has been tainted with opium and hindered by the hatred, suspicion, and contempt engendered by the eventual success of this monstrous scheme to despoil China in brain, body, and pocket, for the sake of gain to the exchequer of Great Britain. To this must be added more than sixty years of unjust and inexcusable diplomacy, the exploitation of China to suit the rival ambitions and satisfy the ever growing greed of the great European Powers, robberies of its territory upon every border, and a consistent disregard of every claim which the Chinese might put forward to the ownership of their own territory and the management of their own affairs. Most clearly it must be understood that, not the missionary in the cabin, but the opium and gunpowder in the hold, has fixed the hatred and established a permanent opposition among the Chinese toward all things foreign. Once for all, it must be most emphatically declared that, not Christian propagandism, but most unchristian policies and practices of aggression, dominance, and spoliation upon the part of certain governments of Europe brought about the horrors of the Boxer uprising.
The earlier general treaties between China and foreign governments make no special concessions to any particular class of alien residents within the Empire. They are not recognized as merchants, missionaries, students, or travelers, but provided for en masse, as citizens or subjects of the government with which the treaty is negotiated. Our own government is particularly careful upon this point, asking special favors for none, and exerting its efforts, when occasion arises, for its people as American citizens only. It is not permitted even to state the calling or avocation of the bearer of a passport, and though the request has often been made by Chinese officials that this be done in the case of missionaries in order that special protection and assistance be afforded them, it has been necessary to refuse the request as contrary to statute or regulation. The missionary possesses only such privileges, exemptions, and immunities under treaty, as are granted to his fellow alien of every other class and occupation. The right to reside, acquire property, and to pursue his calling at certain specified centres of population, mostly upon the sea-coast, and to travel freely under passport, throughout the interior, covers all to which he is entitled under the official pledge and seal of the Imperial government of China.

Yet, from the inception of what may be termed modern missionary enterprise in China, the missionaries have gone beyond this narrow limit of favor, gone beyond the treaty ports, until now they can be found in every province and in nearly every large city. Even in many mud-walled villages and rural hamlets missionary families are now to be found quietly and permanently established in homes, in close touch and intimate association with the native residents. This special favor, unobtainable by any other alien class in the Empire, has assuredly not been won either through any exercise of governmental force or diplomatic pressure. It has been slowly gained by the exercise of patience, tact, and discretion upon the part of the missionaries themselves, under the open eyes and with the tacit, though unspoken, consent of the Imperial authorities. In rare cases, missionaries have been driven out of interior points by local hostility; but in no instance has the Peking government demanded their withdrawal, or our own government urged their right of residence there. This successful missionary expansion, as it may be called, speaks volumes for the wisdom and patient zeal of those who have accomplished it. It does more than this. It shows clearly a line of policy and procedure, which has now been consistently followed by the Imperial authorities for more than forty years, and which may here be stated. The Emperor will neither force nor forbid the residence and labors of missionaries at any points beyond the treaty ports. But recognizing and appreciating the self-denying and philanthropic character of missionary effort, he will gladly permit those engaged in it to establish themselves throughout the interior, wherever they may be able to do so with the consent and good will of the people of the locality. It is not known that this well-established line of policy has been formulated and officially communicated to any foreign power. But it has been verbally declared to the writer by members of the Cabinet and other high authorities of the Empire, upon many occasions.
It would not have been surprising if the Chinese authorities, while conceding so great an advantage to missionaries, should have coupled with it a disclaimer of all responsibility for any mishaps, including mob violence, to which they might be subjected in seeking residence where they had no treaty right to be. But it has done nothing of the sort. It has never, within the knowledge of the writer, attempted to shirk full responsibility for the lives and property of American citizens in any part of the Empire, or to claim that missionaries, in establishing themselves in the interior, ran their own risks, took their lives into their own keeping, and must themselves bear any financial losses which local opposition to their presence might entail upon them. The utmost in the nature of criticism or complaint that can justly be made upon Imperial action in such eases, is that the Peking government would perhaps be more dilatory in making reparation in such a case than in one similar which might occur within the limits of a treaty port; that it appeared to regard the trouble somewhat in the light of a local quarrel between missionaries and populace which should be adjusted by the local authorities. And advice, rather than orders, for punishment of offenders and indemnity for losses, often appeared to be the limit to which the officials at the capital were willing to go. At the same time it must in justice be admitted that if the authorities of the Legation saw fit themselves to take the affair before the local officials, they never failed to secure ample reparation. Can as much be said regarding anti-Chinese mobs in the United States?

Aside from this most practical evidence of the appreciation and favor with which the government of China regards the missionary enterprise, there is a great mass of testimony from individuals high in rank and authority throughout the Empire, all serving to show that this unselfish effort for the good of Chinese humanity has gained for itself an honored place in influential minds once suspicious of or openly hostile to it. Large donations to mission hospitals and schools from official or wealthy Chinese, a great and rapidly increasing demand for Christian literature and educational works, special and unsolicited courtesy and assistance shown to missionaries, all these indicate that the day of Chinese opposition to missionary work among them has passed, and that, whatever may be the opinion of foreigners either resident in China or in their native lands, China itself, as represented by the leaders of thought and public opinion in it, has recognized and accepted the missionary enterprise as one of the most important and useful factors in the creation and development of new life in that ancient and antique Empire.

Not to mention other evidence to this fact, take one incident of recent occurrence in the good city of Boston. The Chinese Imperial government has recently dispatched two commissions, composed of officials of high rank and a numerous staff, to visit and study various important subjects in America and Europe. When arrangements were being made for the visit of the first of these commissions to Boston, and a long list of points in or near the city which they might wish to see was submitted to them, among the first selected were the offices of the American Board, the parent of all foreign missionary organizations in the United States, and having large interests in that work in China. The selection of this active centre of foreign evangelistic effort was unguided and entirely spontaneous. In their addresses and informal remarks during the visit to those offices, the commissioners expressed in unqualified terms their appreciation and strong approval of the missionary enterprise in China, and their gratitude for what had been and was being done there. “We know who are our friends,” said they again and again. Yet neither of the Chinese commissioners was a convert to Christianity, they were under no obligation to visit one of the headquarters of American missionary effort in China, or, being there, to go beyond polite and noncommittal remarks. Hence, and all the more, their declarations must in all fairness be taken as strong official endorsement and approval.
With much time same feelings they expressed their delight at what they saw at Wellesley College, and recognized in it the grander development of what American women were attempting to do for the women of China. Speaking by the way, the treatment of the female sex is the darkest blot upon the civilization of China. A revolt against the earlier practices in this direction has already begun there, and probably nothing in the entire journey of this commission into foreign parts will work such immediate and lasting change for the better, as the visit to Wellesley. To cite one other proof of Chinese official approval of the missionary enterprise: in the later commercial treaties, rendered necessary by the Boxer uprising, foreign missionary organizations are permitted to acquire real estate in all parts of the Empire, and “to erect such suitable buildings as may be required for carrying on their good work.” No similar concession has been made to any other class of alien residents. Thus the voluntary and unwritten policy long followed by the Emperor has been formulated and shaped into a solemn engagement and pledge.

To speak quite frankly and to the fact, for many years more unfriendly criticism and complaint of the presence of missionaries and their work in China has been heard from foreigners, either like them alien residents in the Far East, or at home, than from Chinese officials or people. It has even been customary and the fashion with a certain class, which need not he more particularly described, in speaking of the missionary to prefix an offensive and condemnatory adjective to the word. Regarding the opinions and judgments of such with all possible charity, they have been far more fearful of the evil results of all attempts to do good in far Cathay than have the Chinese themselves. Upon the other hand, in many years of intimate official and friendly intercourse with all classes of Chinese in every part of the Empire, the writer has never heard even one complaint of or objection to the presence of American missionaries in China, or the character of their work. He has heard himself, and all other foreigners of every nationality and calling, cursed in most violent terms for having fastened the opium horror upon the Chinese race, and the suggestion made, in a paroxysm of anger and hate by some human wreck wrought by the drug, that foreigners “would do well to take away that awful curse before they had the impudence to talk to the Chinese about their Jesus.” But, aside from crazed and mistaken denunciation, no Chinaman within his hearing has had anything but pleasant words to speak regarding the missionary enterprise, as conducted by Americans, in his land.

In the discussion of particular “missionary cases,” as they are called, and by which is meant cases of complaints made by missionaries of interference with them in their work,-interference which sometimes took the form of mob violence, – Chinese officials have complained, in most courteous language, of the indiscreet methods or conduct of particular missionaries. Yet this complaint has never been so strong as the writer would himself have used, and has been invariably coupled with a hearty approval and high appreciation of the work of the missionary body as a whole.
It would be idle to deny or ignore the fact that cases of serious friction between the natives and foreign missionaries have arisen in the past and are still of less frequent occurrence. By far the largest percentage of such most unfortunate conflicts has been caused by the unwise and improper interference of missionaries between their native converts and the Chinese authorities, or by the assumption of civil rank and authority by missionaries. Since, in the sixty years of modem missionary enterprise in China, no single charge or complaint of that nature has been made against an American missionary, such causes of trouble need not be discussed here. The conduct of European governments toward China, their greed, aggression, and general attitude of domination, long prejudiced both officials and people against missionaries, who were popularly believed to make use of their professedly philanthropic work only as a cloak, and to be, in fact, spies of their own governments whose aim was the seizure of the Empire and subjugation of its people. But, with greater mutual intelligence and less frequent occasions of misunderstanding, these causes of friction and conflict have, in great measure, disappeared. The true character and great value of the missionary enterprise as a factor in the modernization of China, and in bringing it into line with the great nations of the world, is almost universally recognized and appreciated, at least by those who are being most radically affected by it. And it should be realized and freely admitted that, in a nation where popular opinion and sentiment to an almost unprecedented extent guide and limit governmental policy, -for all the nominally autocratic authority of the Emperor,- the presence of such a force at work quietly among the people, is of the utmost value in the establishment and maintenance of good relations and the development to their full limit of all mutual interests. The missionary has won his way, found his work in China, which, while primarily religious in character, is greatly helpful in all worthy secular affairs. No other foreigner comes in such close and intimate touch with the native as he. And he is the unrecognized and uncommissioned representative of what is best in every phase and department of American life.

In these days of intense commercialism, when trade appears, at least, to have relegated all other concerns and interests to the background, when not only men but governments are bending every energy to the enlargement of existing fields of commerce and the development of new lines and centres of trade, one most important result, one valuable byproduct, as it may be called, of missionary enterprise in China deserves to receive more serious consideration than has hitherto been accorded to it. In it is to be found an agency, unequaled by any other, for the development of our commerce with that vast population. Every missionary is, whether willingly or unwillingly, an agent for the display and recommendation of American fabrics and wares of every conceivable sort. Each missionary home, whether established in great Chinese cities or rural hamlets, serves as an object lesson, an exposition of the practical comfort, convenience, and value of the thousand and one items in the long catalogue of articles which complete the equipment of an American home. Idle curiosity upon the part of the natives grows into personal interest which in turn develops the desire to possess. Did space permit, an overwhelming array of facts and figures could be set forth to prove the inestimable, though unrecognized, value of the missionary as an agent for the development of American commerce in every part of the globe. The manufacturing and commercial interests in the United States, even though indifferent or actively hostile to the direct purpose of the missionary enterprise, could well afford to bear the entire cost of all American missionary effort in China for the sake of the large increase in trade which results from such effort.
When the government and people of the United States are ready, and determined, to return to a dignified and decent, policy in the treatment of the Chinese who are within our borders or may seek to come here; when we realize that now is always the time to apologize for an insult or to right a wrong; when, in short, we resume our earlier attitude and practice of fair play and genuine, helpful friendliness toward the Chinese race and nation, we shall easily secure a renewal of their confidence in us and win back all and more than all that now, thanks to our own folly, appears to have been lost. And the American missionary enterprise in China will play a part in our relations with that great Empire of even greater value in years to come than it has in the past.

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Sino-French War 中法战争

LBZ  刘秉璋 | history by year |

  • ..
Admiral Amedee Courbet

23 Aug, 2014 | When China and France went to war: 130 years since forgotten conflict by Stuart Heaver

A soft-power approach has seen a strong bond develop between Hong Kong and the French, unlike 130 years ago, when France went to war with China. Stuart Heaver looks back at a forgotten conflict.

A print depicts the French navy, led by Admiral Amedee Courbet, battering the Chinese fleet on the Min River, off Fuzhou, on August 23, 1884. Photos: AFP; Stuart HeaverA print depicts the French navy, led by Admiral Amedee Courbet, battering the Chinese fleet on the Min River, off Fuzhou, on August 23, 1884. Photos: AFP; Stuart Heaver

  • “Every man has two countries; his own and France.” The epithet -> president Thomas Jefferson.
  • This year also marks the 50th anniversary of the opening of diplomatic relations between France and Communist China.
  • French and Chinese would be cooperating to build nuclear power plants in Britain
  • August 23, 1884, France and China went to war with each other
  • it stopped China’s self-strengthening movement in its tracks
  • French business advantages and access to China were also what caused the Sino-French war.
  • Bearding the Dragon
    • Black Flag Army
    • when Chinese troops failed to honour the peace accord and massacred an advancing French column
    • The infamous Bac Le ambush, in June 1884
    • “Late at night when the young midshipman delivered the message to British Admiral [William] Dowell anchored nearby, Dowell poured the exhausted young French officer a whisky and wished him ‘ bon chance’,” says Wilmshurst.
    • It is estimated that the Battle of the Pagoda Anchorage lasted less than 10 minutes and the commissioner of customs in Fuzhou reported that, “It cannot be called a battle, it was a butchery.”
  • The wily and adept Admiral Amedee Courbet was tasked with bringing the recalcitrant Chinese into line and his naval squadron amassed in the busy treaty port of Fuzhou.
  • At 2pm on August 23, 1884, Courbet opened fire on the Chinese southern fleet anchored in the Min River
  • Penghu Islands (now a county of Taiwan, also known as the Pescadores Islands) … He died of dysentery in the Penghus the same year and a memorial to the admiral can still be seen at the side of a busy road junction in Magong, the islands’ only city.
  • THE NAVAL OFFENSIVE, then, has been replaced with the charm offensive,
  • .

Few expatriate communities make so vibrant and welcome a cultural contribution to Hong Kong as the French. So it’ll probably come as no surprise to learn that, this weekend, hardly anyone will be marking the 130th anniversary of a little-known war between France and China that created such antipathy towards the European nation that there was a boycott and riots on the streets of Hong Kong.

Every man has two countries; his own and France.” The epithet is attributed to American founding father and third president Thomas Jefferson and it applies particularly to Hong Kong, where the number of French expatriates has been expanding rapidly and their culture and influence seems ubiquitous.

Over recent months, the city that Time magazine calls the “Gallic capital of Asia” has witnessed Le French May arts festival; the visit of French warship Prairial; the “Palaces on the Seas” exhibition at the Maritime Museum, celebrating the golden age of French passenger liners; and Chief Executive Leung Chun-ying being guest of honour at the French national day reception. French football giants Paris Saint-Germain were cheered on as they thrashed Hong Kong’s Kitchee and locals quip that it’s now easier to find a fresh baguette in Sheung Wan than it is a bowl of noodles.
Live the history of Hong Kong, how it grew from colonial opium trading outpost to global finance mecca

This year also marks the 50th anniversary of the opening of diplomatic relations between France and Communist China. Urged on by President Charles de Gaulle, in 1964, the French became the first Western nation to recognise the new government in Beijing, much to the disgust of the Americans. A long established diplomatic bond of trust exists between the two nations, albeit a bond that has been stretched on one or two occasions. Who would have thought, even 20 years ago, that the French and Chinese would be cooperating to build nuclear power plants in Britain?

La Galissonniere, the flagship of French Admiral Sebastien Lespes. Photo: Archives Marius Bar / Hong Kong, French Connections

One hundred and thirty years ago, the relationship was far more frosty. On August 23, 1884, France and China went to war with each other. Few seem to have heard of the nine-month conflict that made the French personae non gratae on the streets of Hong Kong.

It was by no means an obscure or minor historical event, either. It has been estimated that the war on land and at sea caused more than 15,000 casualties on the French, Chinese and Vietnamese sides; it stopped China’s self-strengthening movement in its tracks; it brought down the expansionist French government of Jules Ferry; it defined future French colonial policy in Asia; and it almost brought France and Britain into conflict with one another. Strangely, war was never formally declared by either side and there is no consensus as to who actually won it.

“I have to admit I have never heard of it,” says Agathe Heidelberg, the Parisian director of Marc & Chantal, a creative agency in Sheung Wan.
“Over the last 10 years, what is happening in the French community is just crazy,” says Heidelberg, who arrived with her husband, Jean, a decade ago and now lives with their three young children in Stanley.

Hong Kong’s French population has trebled since 1998; the French consulate estimates that more than 17,000 now live in the city.
“Asia is the attraction as a business venue – especially China – but Hong Kong is much easier than the mainland and more exciting, too,” says Heidelberg, explaining the appeal. “This is just a great place for those who want to start their own business.

A Chinese fort on the Penghu Islands that was captured by the French in March 1885.

“Every week I have a [French] friend e-mailing me saying they would like to visit to look at the market and maybe live here,” she says.

And Heidelberg believes the French might have an edge over their European rivals.

“Maybe with luxury or high-end clients, we have an advantage in that our customers perceive that the French have an intrinsic understanding of luxury, that there is a French touch, that we have savoir vivre,” she says.
Funnily enough, French business advantages and access to China were also what caused the Sino-French war.

“Influential French businessmen hoped to establish an extremely profitable overland route with China, bypassing the treaty ports of the Chinese coastal provinces,” says David Wilmshurst, author of a new book on the war, titled Bearding the Dragon.

Wilmshurst says the conflict was a result of France’s colonial ambitions in Tonkin (northern Vietnam), which the French government thought could provide a direct trading route via the Red River to the southwestern provinces of China.

A memorial to Courbet in Magong, Penghu Islands.

“The French regarded the British as highly ambitious and felt they needed to secure Tonkin before the Brits grabbed it,” says Wilmshurst.

Unfortunately for the French, China considered Vietnam a tribute state and military conflict had been raging on and off in Tonkin between the French and a pack of fearsome bandits sponsored by the Chinese known as the Black Flag Army since the previous year. It was actually the conclusion of these hostilities that triggered war, when Chinese troops failed to honour the peace accord and massacred an advancing French column.

The infamous Bac Le ambush, in June 1884, caused outrage in Paris and a public appetite for revenge.

The wily and adept Admiral Amedee Courbet was tasked with bringing the recalcitrant Chinese into line and his naval squadron amassed in the busy treaty port of Fuzhou.

As the Chinese reinforced their defences and diplomatic efforts stumbled, every step of the tense confrontation was avidly read in the Hong Kong press.

At 2pm on August 23, 1884, Courbet opened fire on the Chinese southern fleet anchored in the Min River, a few miles downstream from the city of Fuzhou. On the eve of the battle, Courbet made a point of warning every neutral ship in the port of the carnage that was about to ensue.

Reports in the China Mail dated October 4, 1884.

“Late at night when the young midshipman delivered the message to British Admiral [William] Dowell anchored nearby, Dowell poured the exhausted young French officer a whisky and wished him ‘ bon chance’,” says Wilmshurst.

It is estimated that the Battle of the Pagoda Anchorage lasted less than 10 minutes and the commissioner of customs in Fuzhou reported that, “It cannot be called a battle, it was a butchery.”

The crews of naval and merchant ships of many other nations anchored in the roadstead were spectators as Courbet systematically destroyed the Chinese ships and the modern naval shipyard and arsenal on the Min River, which had been constructed under the supervision of the French navy only a few years earlier.

“As victorious Admiral Courbet sailed through the ranks of the anchored ships, there was spontaneous applause and cheering from the neutral vessels,” says Wilmshurst.

Support was far from universal, though, and as Courbet carefully exited the Min River, destroying the Chinese defences en route, and proceeded with the occupation and blockade of northern Taiwan, sympathy for the French started to evaporate rapidly as commercial shipping was disrupted and neutral ships were turned back from the Taiwanese coast by French warships.

The irritation in European business circles, though, was nothing compared to the animosity felt on the streets of Hong Kong. When La Galissonniere, the flagship of Courbet’s second in command, Admiral Sebastien Lespes, and small torpedo boat No 46 entered Victoria Harbour in early September 1884 for much-needed repairs following the battle off Fuzhou, local dockworkers, stirred up by the authorities in Canton (Guangzhou), refused to help.

“The Chinese boating people in the colony seem determined to earn the title of patriots during the present position of affairs between France and China and decline to earn an honest penny if the job offered be in any way connected with the French,” reported the China Mail, on September 23, 1884.

The Galissonniere eventually found less-principled Hong Kong workers, but there were genuine fears for the safety of the ship’s company.

“The British had to allocate Admiral Lespes a special guard of armed Sikh policemen,” says Wilmshurst.

When the anti-French strikers were prosecuted by the indignant colonial authorities, who were intolerant of any interruption to usual business practice, it provoked violent riots in the streets. Again, the authorities in Canton helped fan the flames.

A portrait of Courbet.

Under the headline “Serious Riots in Hong Kong”, the China Mail on October 3 reported that “the riot of this morning was the most serious one that has ever occurred in Hong Kong”.

As the East Kent regiment was deployed with bayonets fixed to quell the riots and, for the first time, members of the Chinese merchant elite were engaged to try and pacify the mob, the British, too, turned against their bellicose European neighbours. Disruption to shipping was costing them money, the rapid growth of the French Far East squadron was making the Royal Navy uneasy and the French were able to use Hong Kong freely as a neutral port because they refused to formally declare war on China. Rumours of French cruisers boarding British merchant ships were widely considered a step too far.

“There is a report in circulation that Admiral Dowell has been in telegraphic communication with the authorities at home in regard to the searching of British vessels by French cruisers,” reported the China Mail, on October 6, as the riots continued.

On October 10, just after the worst of the rioting, a young French naval hydrographer, Rollet de l’Isle, revisited Hong Kong and recorded in his journal the distinctly chilly welcome he received.

“A sullen hostility still reigns as evidenced by the fact that we were not met by the crowds of sampans that usually surround our ships when we put into harbour,” he wrote.

The war raged on until April 1885 and a peace accord was signed on June 9. The accord ceded Tonkin to France (eventually to become part of French Indo-China) while the Europeans agreed to withdraw from Keelung, in northern Taiwan, and from the Penghu Islands (now a county of Taiwan, also known as the Pescadores Islands), which Courbet had successfully captured on March 31, 1885.

Courbet wanted to retain the Penghus and see the islands be developed into the French version of Hong Kong but, following a humiliating defeat in the land war in Tonkin during the Lang Son Campaign, Ferry’s government had fallen. No one in Parisian political circles had any appetite for further conflict and Courbet never made it back to France. He died of dysentery in the Penghus the same year and a memorial to the admiral can still be seen at the side of a busy road junction in Magong, the islands’ only city.

If this easily forgotten war that made France so unpopular was driven by commercial motivations and the desire for a trading gateway to China, might the wonderful French culture that we enjoy around this city today be a coordinated assault to support modern-day commercial interests?
“I would not choose the term ‘assault’,” says France’s consul general to Hong Kong, Arnaud Barthelemy, a suave and erudite man who describes himself as a career diplomat with a business background. (“I am not here as a Chinese expert, I am here as a business expert”.)

Author David Wilmshurst

Barthelemy, speaking in his office on the 26th floor of Admiralty Centre, estimates that one-third of his time is spent on economic and business matters and confirms that an increasing number of his countrymen are coming to Hong Kong because of the opportunities that exist here for French business, big and small.

“Clearly there is a strong political willingness on both sides to develop our relations with China and Hong Kong in all fields because this is absolutely key. The relationship is multi-faceted,” he admits. “We have a tradition to encourage as much cultural dialogue as possible and this is part of our diplomacy.

“[Cultural dialogue] is good for business, too, because it helps to establish brand France,” says Barthelemy.

French Consul General Arnaud Barthelemy

What would Courbet, who preferred a naval broadside, have made of cultural exchange and brand development?

Barthelemy seems a little reluctant to chat about the war of 1884 or discuss how well-known he thinks the conflict might be in Hong Kong’s French circles.

“Honestly, not much. Clearly the focus is on the future. And our past in Hong Kong was not just about business,” he says, pointing to an impressive book titled Hong Kong, French Connections, which was produced by the consulate and partially designed by Heidelberg’s company. Here, among the anecdotes relating to worthy and notable French contributions to Hong Kong, you can find a brief account of the French boycott and a picture of the Galissonniere.

“It was about religious people, scientists, explorers, of course, some merchants, but these are not the majority,” Barthelemy says.
The statistics indicate that, in economic terms, the entente cordiale fostered by the current charm offensive is working even more effectively than Courbet’s naval strategy did 130 years ago. According to consulate figures, more than 750 French companies are operating in Hong Kong, 66 of them with regional headquarters here. They employ about 33,000 people and generate a turnover of HK$110 billion. French exports to Hong Kong have more than doubled over the last five years and in business as well as cultural terms, the French seem to be everywhere.

“Few people know that all HSBC transactions are secured with French technology and that Hong Kong ID cards use a French operating system,” says Barthelemy.

THE NAVAL OFFENSIVE, then, has been replaced with the charm offensive, and it is making more friends for brand France than gunboat diplomacy ever did – and is proving better for business. But the bloody Sino-French war had an indirect benefit for China that few recognised at the time.
Many scholars now identify the patriotism and civil disobedience that were witnessed on the streets of Hong Kong and inspired by the French aggression in Fuzhou as the first rumblings of Chinese nationalism in the colony. The development of this public sentiment would help create the modern Chinese republic in 1912.

So, even in those distant days of war and discord, France was managing to make an important contribution (albeit unwittingly) to the development of Hong Kong and China.

Plus ça change …

Taiyuan massacre 太原大屠杀

Zhou Fu 周馥 LBZ  刘秉璋| Timothy Richard | Boxers 义和团 | anti missionary riots | trip 2019 |

2019.6.05, google 太原大屠杀 mostly are Japs in 1937 

2008.7.20 | 42 pix | 太原公子 | 郝波的“好博” | 108年前发生在督军府西门的大屠杀

  • 1900年7月9日,在山西巡抚衙门西辕门前,毓贤在此大开杀戒,也就是现在的山西省实验中学门口  Shanxi Experimental Secondary School  Jinyang St, Xiaodian Qu Taiyuan Shi, Shanxi Sheng, China, 030012
  • ..
  • ..



教堂传教士外出传教农家炕头上的修女JENNIE CLAPP (左)教堂的执事LIU FEN CHIH (刘凤琪) 及其家人

教堂内部  | 传教士外出传教 | 农家炕头上的修女JENNIE CLAPP (左) | 教堂的执事LIU FEN CHIH (刘凤琪) 及其家人 | 教堂内部 | 义和团宣传


现在的督军府西辕门外 (后来改建过) | Charles与Eva Price夫妇和女儿Florence (1897年的合影), 1900年8月15日在汾州同时被杀 | Ernest Pond Atwater与Jennie Pond Atwater夫妇的孩子,左至右:Mary Atwater(1900年7月9日在太原被杀),Bertha Atwater(1900年8月15日在汾州被杀),Ernestine Atwater(前排,1900年7月9日在太原被杀), Celia Atwater(1900年8月15日在太原被杀)。

殉难儿童Atwater夫妇的女儿Mary的绘画 | 殉难儿童Atwater夫妇的女儿Ernestine的绘画 | SUSAN ROWENA BIRD,1900年7月31日在太谷被杀

GEORGE LOUIS WILLIAMS,1858年出生,1900年7月31日在太谷被杀。| G. B. Farthing牧师,1900年7月9日在太原被杀

正在理发的GEORGE LOUIS WILLIAMS (1900年7月31日在太谷被杀) |   FRANCIS DAVIS与LYDIA DAVIS夫妇和他们的新生婴儿,FRANCIS(右)1900年7月31日在太谷被杀。|  MARY LOUISE PARTRIDGE,1900年7月31日在太谷被杀。

G. B. Farthing夫妇及三个孩子,1900年7月9日在太原被杀。| 传教途中的MARY LOUISE PARTRIDGE(左,1900年7月31日在太谷被杀)和助手。

1898年7月8日,太原,Ernest Atwater与Elizabeth Graham(第二排,1900年8月15日在汾州夫妇同时被杀)的婚礼,台阶最前就坐的是英国浸信会的Edwards夫妇,在新婚夫妇身后的是(左至右):George Williams(1900年7月31日在太谷被杀),Underwood,Alice Williams,Howard Clapp(1900年7月31日在太谷被杀),Louise Partridge(1900年7月31日在太谷被杀),George Farthing牧师的家庭教师Ellen Stewart。

在汾州教会的Charles与Eva Price夫妇和女儿Florence,1900年8月15日在汾州同时被杀。| 东门外花园内,殉难者墓地。|




这是在巡抚衙门内的石碑 | 这是当时巡抚衙门门前的牌坊–提督三关 | 这是当时巡抚衙门门前的牌坊–文武为宪 |


建于1905年的解放路天主教堂 | 1907年10月7日拍摄解放路天主教堂 | 二十世纪三四十年代太原天主教教众们服饰

太原天主教会欢迎罗马主教 | 100多年过去了,还有很多教堂里的孩子在这里画画,但是他们不会再有100多年前的遭遇了 |



2005年太原天主教堂落成100周年时的庆祝现场 | 夜景 | 中心医院的前身是天主教堂的教会医院,现在这里还有一座教堂 | 在万寿宫旁还有一座小小的教堂,

上一篇: 曾经填过的三首关于奥运题材的词 下一篇:艳照门和虎照门的不同点及相同点。
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姓名:郝波职业:编辑年龄:26位置:大而至极曰太    广而至平曰原

Shanxi University 山西大学

by Timothy Richard in 1902, after Boxers 义和团 |   Zhou Fu 周馥 LBZ  刘秉璋 Boxers 义和团 | anti missionary riots |

山西大学是中国最早的三所国立大学之一,与京师大学堂、北洋大学堂一起,开创了中国近代高等教育发展的新纪元,形成了 “中西会通、求真至善、登崇俊良、自强报国”的光荣传统,是三晋大地百年文化科教的重镇。

wiki .. Timothy Richard helped the Qing government to deal with the aftermath of the Taiyuan massacre during the Boxer Rebellion. He thought the main cause of the Boxer Rebellion was due to lack of education of the population, so he proposed to Qing court official Li Hongzhang to establish a modern university in Taiyuan with Boxer Indemnity to the Great Britain, and his proposal was approved later. In 1902, Timothy Richard represented the British government to establish Shanxi University, one of the three earliest modern universities in China. Timothy Richard was in charge of the fund to build Shanxi University until ten years later in 1912. During that period, he also served as the head of the College of Western Studies in Shanxi University.


Shanghai 上海“百乐门”舞女们

2017年06月14日 | 揭秘老上海“百乐门”舞女们的香艳传奇 | 来源:国家人文历史

  • The Paramount wiki in 1933; BBC dancing in China 2012 ..
  • 中国实业银行总经理刘晦之 – 刘四爷
  • 陈曼丽
  • .



















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凤凰新媒体 版权所有 Copyright © 2016 Phoenix New Media Limited All Rights Reserved.

Times of London Gutian 1895

riots | Liu | Times of London fm NYC library 2012

  1. Aug 9 – the case for missions in China – 1576
  2. Aug 10 – the outrages in China – 484
  3. Aug 12 – the missionary questions in China – 1422
  4. Aug 12 – the outrages in China – 447
  5. Aug 13 – the outrages in China – 373
  6. Aug 14 – the massacre in China – 1105
  7. Aug 14 – the missionary questions in China Editor – 700
  8. Aug 14 – the outrage in China – 215
  9. Aug 19 – the outrages in China – 216
  10. liu 1
  11. liu 10-12-1895 punishment of liu
  12. liu 12-13-1895 the punishement of liu
  13. massacre of missionary in China Aug 5 – 620
  14. missions to China letter to Editor Aug 8 – 142
  15. persecution of missionary in China Aug 5 – 2984
  16. the importation of opium into China Aug 8 – 1229
  17. the massacre of missionary in China Aug 7 – 1345
  18. the missionary in china Aug 114 words
  19. the outrage in China Aug 9 – 3035
  20. the painful story Aug 5 – 1156
  21. Aug 2 WrapPDF=contentSet=LT=recordID=0FFO-1895-AUG02-003-F
  22. Aug 5 WrapPDF=contentSet=LT=recordID=0FFO-1895-AUG05-003-F
  23. Aug 5 WrapPDF=contentSet=LT=recordID=0FFO-1895-AUG05-007-F
  24. Aug 5 WrapPDF=contentSet=LT=recordID=0FFO-1895-AUG05-008-F

pilots; false religions; Philippians

John and Donna McAdams <mcadamsnewsletter@yahoo.com>
3:10 PM (3 hours ago)

to John

John and Donna McAdams
60155 Agate Road
Bend, OR 97702
Phone: 541-213-7771
November 2018

  • GC pilots
  • Many came to Christ out of addictions and false religions
  • Donna is studying Philippians with the women.
  • back in the GC with all the unusual, interesting perspectives
  • Dragon Ride is selling even better
  • oral surgeon told Donna ..

Dear Friends,
Merry Christmas! Having lived in a Communist country so long, we do love celebrating these God-honoring holidays in America.

We are really enjoying retirement. There’s more time for being together, Bible study, prayer, reading, exercise in the great outdoors, and relationships, while doing the ministries the Lord has given us a passion for. And John is now also able to watch a few ball games, something he was denied for decades while living in the Great Country (GC).

Two of the GC pilots will be getting baptized in December! Praise God for His work in their lives! They were led to the Lord through the church we are partnering with. Please especially pray for Phil, who will be returning to the GC soon. Almost definitely upon his return he will be grilled by the police to find out if he became a Christian while here. And the pilot ministry continues to expand! There will soon be 150 pilots, so please pray that we could recruit more teachers and people to befriend them.

Besides teaching two classes of pilots, John is also co-leading a 50s plus group for our church, and leading the Chinese-language Bible study, which is studying Galatians.

Donna has been very burdened for the women in our church. Many came to Christ out of addictions and false religions, but most have never been discipled. Donna has started two small Bible studies. To give you an idea how the studies go: One of the women, Theresa, came to Christ about forty years ago after deep involvement in New Age, so deep, in fact, that a demon came out of her when she committed her life to the Lord. But it seems that she hasn’t been reading the Bible all this time, because a few months ago she announced to the two of us how thrilled she was that she had bought a Bible. Donna is studying Philippians with the women. After discussing Paul’s prayer life, Donna asked them to tell about their prayer lives. Theresa looked off into the distance and smiled, “Oh, meditating, emptying my body of myself and filling myself with God. That would be glorious.” Donna gently told her that that sounded a little like New Age. Theresa was startled and said, “I’ve been trying to do that for the four decades I’ve been a Christian! I thought that was what prayer was.” After she thought a little more about it, she said, “If I’m not in my body when I pray, and only God is there, who would God be talking to? He could only talk to Himself!” Later she texted Donna that the study is completely transforming her thinking. For Donna, it feels like she’s back in the GC with all the unusual, interesting perspectives. The other study has a former Mormon in it, and she brings up Mormon doctrine to explain life instead of Christian beliefs. So to help Donna understand these women, she is now studying Mormonism and New Age.

Dragon Ride is selling even better, and continues to frequently be an Amazon bestseller. In fact, Amazon put it on sale because it has been selling so well. Any of you who were blessed by Dragon Ride, but have not yet written an Amazon customer review, every review really helps the book. Donna is currently writing two new books. One is about how to share the gospel. The other is more stories from the GC. So far she has written six stories, including a story about the kidnapping of our GC pastor by a cult. The editor for Dragon Ride has already agreed to edit any more books Donna writes.

But we recently got some bad news—an oral surgeon told Donna that the discs on both TMJ (jaw joints) have migrated completely away from the joints. Donna has been having trouble eating and talking, as both sides are grating bone on bone. The pastors at our church anointed her with oil and prayed for her healing, but as of this date the Lord has not decided to heal her. If he doesn’t heal her, she will have surgery to put the discs back in place on January 18. We hear that recovery is slow and difficult. She won’t be up and talking until late March.

Please pray for Donna. Her TMJ problem is really frustrating her. You women, especially, would understand how hard this is on her, not being able to talk freely. But also her ministries have had to be put on hold. What bothers her most is stopping the Bible studies. Also, churches have been asking her to speak on evangelism, but she has had to postpone those opportunities as well. InterVarsity didn’t invite Donna to give a seminar at Urbana, which is good, because she couldn’t have spoken there anyway.

Please continue to pray for the GC Christians. We keep hearing frightening stories about the persecution there. The government is trying to force some Christians, especially public school teachers, to deny their faith. The public school teachers are sometimes also required to teach the students how wrong Christianity is. One teacher we know, whom we have been able to get indirect communication from, said that if she has to deny Christ, she will quit her teaching position instead. (In the GC it would be difficult for her to get a teaching job again.) Many of the women Donna led to the Lord are teachers at public schools and universities, but we don’t know how this is affecting them because we can’t communicate clearly. And then we were told that Pastor Wu, a top leader of the network of churches that John trained, has been imprisoned. He is a very sweet man, and used to visit John during the training sessions. He is about 65 years old, so incarceration in a GC prison has got to be a terrible ordeal. Please pray for these precious brothers and sisters.

In His care,
John and Donna

A Tour of Old Canton

Links @ hpc Bristol

  • 2018.10.14,
    Hi there and thank you for considering us. Photos cost $10.00 a copy. As you are publishing a book a licensing fee of $100.00 applies. We scan them at 1200 dpi as jpegs which are suitable for printing. Please send the numbers attached to the photos (should be PA-something) and I can print them off for you if you decide to proceed. I look forward to hearing from you.Myke Tymons

Presbyterian Archives Research Centre | Photo Gallery No 9

Using a late 19th century map as well as old photographs and coloured postcards, many taken over a century ago, our Spring gallery takes a nostalgic look at the old Chinese city of Canton, now known as Guangzhou.

Following the ‘Opium Wars’, Canton was first opened to foreign trade by the Treaty of Nanking in 1842. Following a disturbance, French and British forces occupied Canton in 1856. Later Shameen Island (now known as Shamian) in the Pearl River was ceded to them for business and residential purposes, being connected to Canton by two small bridges across a canal. Shameen’s attractive broad avenues, gardens, and fine buildings contrasted sharply with the crowded, narrow but busy and enthralling streets of Old Canton.

Artisans, merchants and the general populace went about their daily business in the narrow crowded streets as they had done for centuries. Rickshaws and ‘chair’ carriers plied their trade in the cramped streets while passenger vessels, junks, sampans and houseboats crowded together in the Pearl River and adjoining canals.

To many Europeans unaccustomed to such a swarming mass of humanity, this could be a uniquely enthralling experience. But based on their own European ideals and standards, some were often bewildered or shocked by the scenes they encountered. Swarming coolies among the narrow streets, noisy street markets, the smell of open street sewers and reeking canals, the dirt, and the inevitable sight of beggars served to challenge many a more sensitive soul.

Our Missionaries took a great number of images of Canton and of old China to send back home. Many were made into lantern slides to illustrate popular Missionary talks to appreciative and enthralled Parish audiences who knew but little of this strange foreign world. These unique images still serve to give a vivid impression of early 20th century Canton, a world now of the past.

We would value your comments and feedback : pcanzarchives@prcknox.org.nz We can supply copies of most of the images in this gallery upon request. Please refer to our “Hours & Charges” page.

Presbyterian Church Archives Research Centre Home Page

Donald Cochrane
Curator of Photographs (Retired)

China Flag

Page One Page Two Page Three

Canton Map 1

Part of a pre revolution map of Canton drawn by the Rev Daniel Vrooman of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM) in 1860. Our tour takes us to Fatei (Fati) at lower left, onto Shameen Island in lower centre, the Steamer landing on the Pearl River at right, and then to the Temple of the 500 Genii in upper centre. These areas were outside the old City walls, being shown by the dark lines drawn in the upper right hand corner.
“A Bit of Shipping off Fati”

Taken in 1903, this image shows junks in the crowded Pearl River opposite Fatie [Fati], being on the opposite south west side of the river from Canton and close to Shameen Island. Note the timber raft in foreground.

Shipping off Fati

Missionaries at Fati

“Missionaries on the Way to Rebuild the Waste Places at Lien Chow””

America Presbyterian Missionaries on two houseboats at Fatei (Fati), Canton, prior to leaving for Lien Chow to re-open a Mission Station destroyed 28 Oct 1905. The party to Lien Chow consisted of Rev AJ Fischer, Rev & Mrs Rees F. Edwards, Miss Elda Patterson (seated at front), Dr & Mrs Ross, Rev JS Kinkle & Dr EC Machle. The children of Rev & Mrs Edwards are pictured in the second boat.

Houseboats provided a relatively comfortable mode of travel. Many Missionaries, unaccustomed to the rigours of negotiating roughly formed country tracks on foot, resorted to travel by “chair” on long trips inland, being carried in a wicker chair suspended on poles by Chinese coolies.

“Foreign Concession, Shameen Island”

Most Europeans lived on Shameen Island bordering Canton City, ownership of land elsewhere by foreigners having previously been prohibited. The wide streets, well tended gardens and substantial dwellings were in stark contrast to the sights and sounds of old Canton.


Shameen Bridge

“Shameen Bridge”

This attractive bridge across a canal connected Shameen Island with Canton City. The tent structure atop the bridge would presumably have provided shelter for officials controlling access to Shameen. Note the crowded wharf and the canal absolutely crammed with sampans.

“Canal at Shameen ”

A view taken from Shameen Bridge looking down the crowded canal and street. The well-tended river bank on Shameen Island at left is in stark contrast to that of Canton City on the right.

Canal at Shameen

Temple of the 500 Genii

“Temple of the The 500 Genii”

A glimpse inside this large Buddhist Temple due north of Shameen which was but one of numerous temples throughout the city. Such named temples in Canton included the Temple of Longevity, Temple of the 5 Genii, Temple of Horrors, Temple of Buddha, Temple of the Emperers, Confucian Temple, Taoist Temple, and the Temple of the God of War.

“Marco Polo”

A close-up of the ‘representation’ of Marco Polo, the great 13th century Venetian traveller, in the temple of the 500 Genii. Famed as the first European to travel from Europe and then throughout China, his travels and exploits have become legendary. It appears that such was his enduring reputation in China that this image was named for him so that one could make an offering and prayer to his spirit. It appears however, that this representation was a later convenient Chinese ‘invention’, the temple actually containing 500 figures of Arhans or Buddhist saints!

Marco Polo

Canton Map 2

Eastwards from Shameen Island and past the Steamer Landing lies an area bordering the Pearl River which was later built up to form a wide concourse known as “The Bund”. Honam lies on the opposite south bank of the river with the Roman Catholic Cathedral (marked “RCC”) just inside the City wall at upper right.
“Pearl River From Canton”

This image appears to have been taken from Canton looking across the Pearl River to Honam Island. Shameen Island is just past the steamer wharf at far right. A rather large and elaborate junk is moored at left. The Bund, a large strip of land bordering the Pearl River, appears in the foreground.

Pearl River from Canton

Pearl River

“Pearl River from Honam”

A view taken from Honam Island looking across the busy Pearl River towards Canton City with the outline of White Cloud Mountain, 17 kilometers distant from Canton, at rear.

Canton had a ‘floating’ population of at least 100,000 souls. On its waterways could be found sampans, ‘great’ boats, slipper boats, cargo boats, coffin boats, passage boats, ferry boats, theatrical boats, flower boats, house boats, leper boats, police boats, guard boats, customs boats, fishing boats, gunboats, steamboats, floating restaurants and brothels, and steam launches.

“Canton Looking North East”

A view taken from near the steamer landing, looking north east along the Bund and over Canton city. The twin spired Catholic Cathedral stands out markedly on the city skyline.

Canton Looking North East

Procession on the Bund

“Dragon Procession on the Bund”

A large standing room only crowd watching a ceremonial ‘dragon’ procession making its way along the Bund, c.1911.

“Canal & Ferryboat”

A canal ferry man in the western suburbs with his punt moored beside a landing stage, stone steps leading down to the water’s edge. The long poles propped up against the building at right may very well be his poles for moving the punt through the water. Taken July 1906.

Canal & Ferryboat, Western Suburb

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More than 300 accused priests listed in Pennsylvania report on Catholic Church sex abuse

2019,  The long overlooked sexual abuse of nuns

  • Spotlight Boston
  • PA general attorney: OAG clergy abuse hotline (888) 538-8541

By Michelle Boorstein August 14 at 2:26 PM

This story will be updated.

Reis Chico Harlan contributed to this report from Rome. Reis Thebault contributed from Washington.

The Pennsylvania Supreme Court on Tuesday released a sweeping grand jury report on sex abuse in the Catholic Church, listing more than 300 accused clergy and detailing 70 years of misconduct and church response across the state.

State Attorney General Josh Shapiro said at a news conference Tuesday that more than 1,000 child victims were identified in the report, but the grand jury believes there are more.

He said that the report details a “systematic coverup by senior church officials in Pennsylvania and at the Vatican.”

The release is the culmination of an 18-month probe, led Shapiro, on six of the state’s eight dioceses — Harrisburg, Pittsburgh, Allentown, Scranton, Erie and Greensburg — and follows other state grand jury reports that revealed abuse and coverups in two other dioceses.

[Read the grand jury report]

The nearly 1,400-page report’s introduction makes clear that few criminal cases may result from the massive investigation.

“As a consequence of the coverup, almost every instance of abuse we found is too old to be prosecuted,” it reads.

“We subpoenaed, and reviewed, half a million pages of internal diocesan documents. They contained credible allegations against over three hundred predator priests. Over one thousand child victims were identifiable, from the church’s own records. We believe that the real number — of children whose records were lost, or who were afraid ever to come forward — is in the thousands.”

Some details and names that might reveal the clergy listed have been redacted from the report. Legal challenges by clergy delayed the report’s release, after some said it is a violation of their constitutional rights. Shapiro said they will work to remove every redaction.

[Catholic Church and advocates of sex abuse survivors battle over release of Pa. grand jury report]

The report has helped renew a crisis many in the church thought and hoped had ended nearly 20 years ago after the scandal erupted in Boston. But recent abuse-related scandals, from Chile to Australia, have reopened wounding questions about accountability and whether church officials are still covering up crimes at the highest levels.

The new wave of allegations has called Pope Francis’s handling of abuse into question as many Catholics look to him to help the church regain its credibility. The pope’s track record has been mixed, something some outsiders attribute to his learning curve or shortcomings and others chalk up to resistance from a notoriously change-averse institution.

[Why the Vatican continues to struggle with sex abuse scandals]

The Pennsylvania grand jury report follows the resignation last month of Cardinal Theodore McCarrick, a towering figure in the U.S. church and former D.C. archbishop who was accused of sexually abusing minors and adults for decades. Both have further polarized the church on homosexuality, celibacy and whether laypeople should have more power. It has also triggered debate about whether statutes of limitations should be expanded.

“We’re dealing with a long-term struggle not only about the meaning of justice, but about the meaning of memory,” said Jason Berry, a reporter and author who has covered the sexual abuse crisis for decades. “And how honest the church has been about this crisis. Most bishops, besides apologies, have not been on the cutting edge of change.”

Church officials began bracing for the aftermath of the report. On Monday, D.C.’s archbishop, Cardinal Donald Wuerl, former longtime leader of the Pittsburgh diocese, warned his priests in a letter that the probe will be “profoundly disturbing.”

Harrisburg’s bishop, Ronald Gainer, said earlier this month that he would remove the names of all accused bishops from diocesan buildings and rooms. Erie Bishop Lawrence Persico last month told PennLive.com, a digital news site based in central Pennsylvania, that the report will be “sobering” and “is rather graphic.”

“While I expect that this report will be critical of some of my actions, I believe the report also confirms that I acted with diligence,” Wuerl wrote to D.C.’s clergy, referencing his time in Pittsburgh.

The investigation took about two years and covers all dioceses except the two already studied — Philadelphia and Altoona-Johnstown. Pennsylvania is believed to have done more investigations of institutional child sex abuse than any other state.

Berry said the report — coupled with the McCarrick scandal and others — shows the church needs a major overhaul in how it polices itself. He said the church needs a “separation of powers, an independent oversight.”

“Canon law is not equipped for this kind of thing. It’s an enormous criminal sexual underground. It’s been surfacing like jagged parts of an iceberg for 30 years,” Berry said.

Yet others fear the progress made by the church since the early 2000s is being overlooked. The number of new allegations is down, and the vast majority took place decades ago.

“The church has done things right since 2002 — Dallas was a game-changer,” said Nick Cafardi, former dean of Duquesne University School of Law, a Catholic school in Pittsburgh, referring to the city where the church passed its crackdown rules on child sex abusers in 2002. “But what was done before Dallas is indefensible.”

Yet the fact that such a small number of high-level clerics — as opposed to parish-level priests — have been held responsible is glaring to many Catholics.

The question of whether the church’s sins have been confronted remains raw. Wuerl in an interview earlier this month with the Catholic station Salt & Light said he doesn’t think “this is some massive, massive crisis.” He then suggested the creation of an oversight board of bishops. Some critics saw his comments as tone-deaf.

That same week, Albany Bishop Edward B. Scharfenberger said the slew of recent scandals signals a new phase.

“While I am heartened by my brother bishops proposing ways for our Church to take action in light of recent revelations. . . . I think we have reached a point where bishops alone investigating bishops is not the answer,” he wrote.

Worldwide, the Vatican is dealing with law enforcement targeting abuse within the church. In Chile, prosecutors and police are staging raids on church offices, confiscating documents and looking for evidence of crimes that went unreported to police. On Tuesday, the Associated Press reported a prosecutor said authorities were raiding the headquarters of Chile’s Catholic Episcopal Conference.

As part of the probe, a prosecutor’s office has summoned the archbishop of Santiago, Cardinal Ricardo Ezzati, to testify amid accusations that he was involved in the coverup of abuse.

“People are basically revolting against what had been these sacred cows,” said Juan Carlos Cruz, a Chilean abuse victim who earlier this year spent several days with the pope. “In the 1970s and 1980s, the church was a lighthouse for the country. And it’s incredible to see this 180-degree turn. People who venerated the church, now they actually despise what they’re doing.”

The crisis in Chile is just one case in a new wave of abuse-related revelations that have raised pressure on Pope Francis to deal more forcefully with abuse. In France, Cardinal Philippe Barbarin is facing a trial on criminal charges for not reporting sexual abuse. In Australia, one archbishop was recently convicted in a criminal court for concealing sexual abuse, and a top Francis lieutenant, Cardinal George Pell, will soon stand trial on charges related to sexual offenses.

“Accountability from inside the church is not happening,” said Anne Barrett Doyle, co-director of BishopAccountability.org, which tracks sexual abuse cases. “But secular society is beginning to affect the most change.”

Doyle said the Pennsylvania grand jury report could also lead the way for the state to change statute of limitations laws related to abuse.

Todd Frey, 50, who says he was abused when he was 13 by a priest in Lancaster County, spoke to the grand jury. He said he told church and law enforcement officials over the years, but nothing was done. The report will be his first opportunity to see if the priest is accused of abusing others, and who in the church knew.

“Who else did he pick?” Frey said Monday, as his lawyer David Inscho listened in. Survivors like Frey, who is unable to work, “know their little part,” Inscho said on the phone call, “what they saw through eyes of a 12- or 13-year-old and now they can see everything. And that is really, really important — the validation of it. The having been heard by law enforcement. Actually caring makes a big difference instead of saying ‘We can’t do anything.’”

A Small Woman 对她的遗忘, 是我们最大的罪恶

by Alan Burgess,

  • 2018.9.30, 119 reviews on Goodread
  • The Inn of the Sixth Happiness
    “The Small Woman” was filmed as “The Inn of the Sixth Happiness,” with Ingrid Bergman as Gladys Aylward.; The story of Gladys Aylward, a parlour maid 客厅女仆  in London, who overcame many obstacles to become a missionary in China. The book describes life in China between the wars and the deep Christian faith and indomitable courage of a remarkable woman.

2018.9.29  |  对她的遗忘, 是我们最大的罪恶 |  原创: 难得君 难得书院 | 文: 罗炼

  • Gladys Aylward 艾伟德 1902-70 wiki
  • .







那么今天,就请记住这位伟大的女性:格蕾蒂丝·艾伟德 Gladys Aylward。









我查询了一下当地近几年的年平均气温,发现十一月的日均最高温-7 ℃,最低温-20 ℃。在温室效应远没有今天如此严重的1930年,在艾伟德女士艰难跋涉于荒郊野外的那个夜晚,天气会有多冷?无法想象。









艾伟德英文传记《The Small Woman》




































英格丽·褒曼在《The Inn of the Sixth Happiness》中饰演艾伟德




























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艾韦德女士在危难时刻对中国儿童的救助,一如她心目中的 圣母玛利亚。

Muslims forced to drink alcohol and eat pork in China’s ‘re-education’ camps, former inmate claims

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News › World › Asia 2018.5.18 Independent


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Muslims were detained for re-education by China‘s government and made to eat pork and drink alcohol, according to a former internment camp inmate.

Omir Bekali, one among perhaps a million people reportedly arrested and held in mass re-education camps, said he was detained without trial or access to a lawyer and forced to disavow his beliefs while praising the Communist Party.

Mr Bekali, a Kazakh citizen, said he contemplated suicide after 20 days in the facility – which itself followed seven months in a prison.

Since spring last year authorities in Xinjiang region have confined tens or even hundreds of thousands of Muslims in the camps, including some foreign nationals. One estimate put the figure at a million or more.

A US commission called it the “the largest mass incarceration of a minority population in the world today” while a leading historian called it “cultural cleansing”.

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Asked to comment on the camps by the Associated Press, the ministry said it “had not heard” of the situation. When asked why non-Chinese had been detained, it said the Chinese government protected the rights of foreigners in China and that they should also be law abiding. Chinese officials in Xinjiang did not respond to requests for comment.

When Mr Bekali refused to follow orders each day in the camp, he was forced to stand at a wall for five hours at a time. A week later, he was sent to solitary confinement, where he was deprived of food for 24 hours, he claimed. After 20 days in the heavily guarded camp, he wanted to kill himself.

“The psychological pressure is enormous, when you have to criticise yourself, denounce your thinking – your own ethnic group,” said Mr Bekali, who broke down in tears as he described the camp. “I still think about it every night, until the sun rises. I can’t sleep. The thoughts are with me all the time.”

The detention campaign has swept across Xinjiang, a territory half the area of India.

Chinese officials have largely avoided comment on the camps, but some are quoted in state media as saying that ideological changes are needed to fight separatism and Islamic extremism. Radical Muslim Uighurs have killed hundreds in recent years, and China considers the region a threat to peace in a country where the majority is Han Chinese.

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The internment programme aims to rewire the political thinking of detainees, erase their Islamic beliefs and reshape their very identities. The camps have expanded rapidly over the past year, with almost no judicial process or legal paperwork. Detainees who most vigorously criticise the people and things they love are rewarded, and those who refuse to do so are punished with solitary confinement, beatings and food deprivation.

The recollections of Mr Bekali, a heavyset and quiet 42-year-old, offer what appears to be the most detailed account yet of life inside so-called re-education camps. Rare interviews with three other former internees and a former instructor in other centres corroborated Mr Bekali’s depiction. Most spoke on condition of anonymity to protect their families in China.

Mr Bekali’s case stands out because he was a foreign citizen, of Kazakhstan, who was seized by China’s security agencies and detained for eight months last year without recourse. Although some details are impossible to verify, two Kazakh diplomats confirmed he was held for seven months and then sent to re-education.

The detention programme is a hallmark of China’s emboldened state security apparatus under the deeply nationalistic, hard-line rule of President Xi Jinping. It is partly rooted in the ancient Chinese belief in transformation through education – taken once before to terrifying extremes during the mass thought reform campaigns of Mao Zedong, the Chinese leader sometimes channelled by Mr Xi.

“Cultural cleansing is Beijing’s attempt to find a final solution to the Xinjiang problem,” said James Millward, a China historian at Georgetown University.

Rian Thum, a professor at Loyola University in New Orleans, said China’s re-education system echoed some of the worst human rights violations in history.

“The closest analogue is maybe the Cultural Revolution in that this will leave long-term, psychological effects,” Prof Thum said. “This will create a multigenerational trauma from which many people will never recover.”

However, fragments in state media and journals show the confidence Xinjiang officials hold in methods that they say work well to curb religious extremism. China’s top prosecutor, Zhang Jun, urged Xinjiang’s authorities this month to extensively expand what the government calls the “transformation through education” drive in an “all-out effort” to fight separatism and extremism.

In a June 2017 paper published by a state-run journal, a researcher from Xinjiang’s Communist Party School reported that most of 588 surveyed participants did not know what they had done wrong when they were sent to re-education. But by the time they were released, nearly all – 98.8 percent– had learned their mistakes, the paper said.

Transformation through education, the researcher concluded, “is a permanent cure”.

A Human Rights Watch (HRW) report released earlier this week claimed that Chinese officials were now regularly imposing themselves on families in Xinjiang in “home stays”.

During the visits unwilling hosts are allegedly forced to tell authorities about their lives and political views, and are subject to indoctrination.

“Muslim families across Xinjiang are now literally eating and sleeping under the watchful eye of the state in their own homes,” said HRW’s Maya Wang, a senior researcher. “The latest drive adds to a whole host of pervasive – and perverse – controls on everyday life in Xinjiang.”

‘People’s war on terror’

On the chilly morning of 23 March 2017, Mr Bekali drove up to the Chinese border from his home in Almaty, Kazakhstan, got a stamp in his Kazakh passport and crossed over for a work trip, not quite grasping the extraordinary circumstances he was stepping into.

Mr Bekali was born in China in 1976 to Kazakh and Uighur parents, moved to Kazakhstan in 2006 and received citizenship three years later. He was out of China in 2016, when authorities sharply escalated a “People’s War on Terror” to root out what the government called religious extremism and separatism in Xinjiang, a large Chinese territory bordering Pakistan and several Central Asian states, including Kazakhstan.

The Xinjiang he returned to was unrecognizable. All-encompassing, data-driven surveillance tracked residents in a region with around 12 million Muslims, including ethnic Uighurs and Kazakhs. Viewing a foreign website, taking phone calls from relatives abroad, praying regularly or growing a beard could land a person in a political indoctrination camp, or prison, or both.

The new internment system was shrouded in secrecy, with no publicly available data on the numbers of camps or detainees. The US State Department estimated those being held are “at the very least in the tens of thousands”. A Turkey-based TV station run by Xinjiang exiles said almost 900,000 were detained, citing leaked government documents.

Adrian Zenz, a researcher at the European School of Culture and Theology, puts the number between several hundreds of thousands and just over 1 million. Government bids and recruitment ads studied by Zenz suggest that the camps have cost more than $100m (£74m) since 2016, and construction is ongoing.

Mr Bekali knew none of this when he visited his parents on March 25. He passed police checkpoints and handed over his decade-old Chinese identity card.

The next day, five armed policemen showed up at Mr Bekali’s parents’ doorstep and took him away. They said there was a warrant for his arrest in Karamay, a frontier oil town where he lived a decade earlier. He couldn’t call his parents or a lawyer, the police added, because his case was “special.”

Mr Bekali was held in a cell, incommunicado, for a week, and then was driven 500 miles to Karamay’s Baijiantan District public security office.

There, they strapped him into a “tiger chair”, a device that clamped down his wrists and ankles. They also hung him by his wrists against a barred wall, just high enough so he would feel excruciating pressure in his shoulder unless he stood on the balls of his bare feet, he claimed. They interrogated him about his work with a tourist agency inviting Chinese to apply for Kazakh tourist visas, which they claimed was a way to help Chinese Muslims escape.

“I haven’t committed any crimes!” Mr Bekali said he yelled.

They asked for days what he knew about two dozen prominent ethnic Uighur activists and businessmen in Kazakhstan. Exhausted and aching, Mr Bekali coughed up what he knew about a few names he recognised.

The police then sent Mr Bekali to a 10sqm cell in the prison with 17 others, their feet chained to the posts of two large beds. Some wore dark blue uniforms, while others wore orange for political crimes. Mr Bekali was given orange.

In mid-July, three months after his arrest, Mr Bekali received a visit from Kazakh diplomats. China’s mass detention of ethnic Kazakhs – and even Kazakh citizens – had begun to make waves in the Central Asian country of 18 million. Kazakh officials say China detained 10 Kazakh citizens and hundreds of ethnic Kazakh Chinese in Xinjiang over the past year, though they were released in late April following a visit by a Kazakh deputy foreign minister.

Four months after the visit, Mr Bekali was taken out of his cell and handed a release paper.

But he was not yet free.

‘We now know better’

Mr Bekali was driven from jail to a fenced compound in the northern suburbs of Karamay, where three buildings held more than 1,000 internees receiving political indoctrination, he said.

He walked in, past a central station that could see over the entire facility, and received a tracksuit. Heavily armed guards watched over the compound from a second level. He joined a cell with 40 internees, he said, including teachers, doctors and students. Men and women were separated.

Internees would wake up together before dawn, sing the Chinese national anthem, and raise the Chinese flag at 7.30am. They gathered back inside large classrooms to learn “red songs” like “Without the Communist Party, there is no New China”, and study Chinese language and history. They were told that the indigenous sheep-herding Central Asian people of Xinjiang were backward and yoked by slavery before they were “liberated” by the Communist Party in the 1950s.

Before meals of vegetable soup and buns, the inmates would be ordered to chant: “Thank the Party! Thank the Motherland! Thank President Xi!”

Discipline was strictly enforced and punishment could be harsh. Mr Bekali was kept in a locked room almost around the clock with eight other internees, who shared beds and a wretched toilet. Cameras were installed in toilets and even outhouses. Baths were rare, as was washing of hands and feet, which internees were allegedly told was equated with Islamic ablution.

Mr Bekali and other former internees said the worst parts of the indoctrination program were forced repetition and self-criticism. Although students did not understand much of what was taught and the material bordered on the nonsensical to them, they were made to internalise it by repetition in sessions lasting two hours or longer.

“We will oppose extremism, we will oppose separatism, we will oppose terrorism,” they chanted again and again. Almost every day, the students received guest lecturers from the local police, judiciary and other branches of government warning about the dangers of separatism and extremism.

In four-hour sessions, instructors lectured about the dangers of Islam and drilled internees with quizzes that they had to answer correctly or be sent to stand near a wall for hours on end.

“Do you obey Chinese law or Sharia?” instructors asked. “Do you understand why religion is dangerous?”

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One by one, internees would stand up before 60 of their classmates to present self-criticisms of their religious history, Mr Bekali said. The detainees would also have to criticise and be criticised by their peers. Those who parroted official lines particularly well or lashed into their fellow internees viciously were awarded points and could be transferred to more comfortable surroundings in other buildings, he said.

“I was taught the Holy Quran by my father and I learned it because I didn’t know better,” Mr Bekali heard one say.

“I travelled outside China without knowing that I could be exposed to extremist thoughts abroad,” Mr Bekali recalled another saying. “Now I know.”

A Uighur woman told AP she was held in a centre in the city of Hotan in 2016. She said she and fellow prisoners repeatedly were forced to apologise for wearing long clothes in Muslim style, praying, teaching the Quran to their children and asking imams to name their children.

Praying at a mosque on any day other than Friday was a sign of extremism; so was attending Friday prayers outside their village or having Quranic verses or graphics on their phones.

While instructors watched, those who confessed to such behaviour were told to repeat over and over: “We have done illegal things, but we now know better.”

A debt to the country

Other detainees and a re-education camp instructor told similar stories.

In mid-2017, an Uighur former on-air reporter for Xinjiang TV known as Eldost was recruited to teach Chinese history and culture in an indoctrination camp because he spoke excellent Mandarin. He had no choice.

The re-education system, Eldost said, classified internees into three levels of security and duration of sentences.

The first group typically consisted of illiterate minority farmers who had committed no ostensible crimes other than not speaking Chinese. The second class was made up of people who were caught at home or on their smartphones with religious content or so-called separatist materials, such as lectures by the Uighur intellectual Ilham Tohti.

The final group was made up of those who had studied religion abroad and come back, or were seen to be affiliated with foreign elements. In the latter cases, internees were often were sentenced to prison terms of 10 to 15 years, Eldost said.

While he was teaching, Eldost once saw through the window 20 students driven into the courtyard. Two rows of guards waited for them and beat them as soon as they got out of the police van. He later heard that the internees were recent arrivals who had studied religion in the Middle East.

Violence was not regularly dispensed, but every internee interviewed said they had seen at least one incident of rough treatment or beatings.

Eldost said the instruction was aimed at showing how backward traditional Uighur culture is and how repressive fundamentalist Islam is compared to a progressive Communist Party. The internees’ confessions of their backwardness helped drive the point home.

“Internees are told to repeat those confessions to the point where, when they are finally freed, they believe that they owe the country a lot, that they could never repay the party,” said Eldost, who escaped from China in August after paying a bribe.

Eldost said he tried in little ways to help his internees. Tasked with teaching the Three Character Classic, a Confucian standard taught widely in elementary schools, he would make up mnemonic devices to help his students – including elderly or illiterate Uighur farmers who barely knew their own language – recite a few lines. He also advised students to stop habitually saying “praise God” in Arabic and Uighur because other instructors punished them for it.

Every time he went to sleep in a room with 80 others, he said, the last thing he would hear was the sound of misery.

“I heard people crying every night,” he said. “That was the saddest experience in my life.”

Another former detainee, a Uighur from Hotan in southern Xinjiang, said his newly built centre had just 90 people in two classes in 2015. There, a government instructor claimed said that Uighur women historically did not wear underwear, braided their hair to signal their sexual availability, and had dozens of sexual partners.

“It made me so angry,” the detainee said. “These kinds of explanations of Uighur women humiliated me. I still remember this story every time I think about this, I feel like a knife cut a hole in my chest.”

Kayrat Samarkan, a Chinese Kazakh from Astana who was detained while running errands in a northern Xinjiang police station in December, was sent to an internment camp in Karamagay in northern Xinjiang with 5,700 students.

Those who did not obey, were late to class or got into fights were put for 12 hours in a loose body-suit that was made of iron and limited their movement, he said. Those who still disobeyed would be locked in a tiger chair for 24 hours. As one form of punishment, he said, instructors would press an internee’s head in a tub of ice and water.

After three months, Samarkan could not take the lessons anymore, so he bashed his head against a wall to try to kill himself. He merely fell unconscious.

“When I woke up, the staff threatened me, saying if I did that again they would extend my sentence to 7 years there,” he said.

After 20 days, Mr Bekali also contemplated suicide. Several days later, because of his intransigence and refusal to speak Mandarin, Mr Bekali was no longer permitted to go into the courtyard. Instead, he was sent to a higher level of management, where he spent 24 hours a day in a room with eight others.

A week later, he went to his first stint in solitary confinement. He saw a local judicial official walking into the building on an inspection tour and yelled at the top of his lungs. He thought even his former detention centre, with the abuse he suffered, would be better.

“Take me in the back and kill me, or send me back to prison,” he shouted. “I can’t be here anymore.”

He was again hauled off to solitary confinement. It lasted 24 hours, ending late afternoon on 24 November.

That is when Mr Bekali was released, as suddenly as he was detained eight months earlier.

A Baijiantan policemen who had always gone easy on Mr Bekali during interrogation appeared and checked him out of the facility.

“You were too headstrong, but what the department did was unjust,” he told Mr Bekali as he drove him to his sister’s home in Karamay.

Mr Bekali was free.

Freedom, but not for his family

The next morning, a Saturday, the police opened their immigration office for Mr Bekali to pick up a unique, 14-day Chinese visa. His original had long expired. Mr Bekali left China on 4 December.

Seeking compensation from the Chinese government is out of the question. But Mr Bekali keeps a plastic folder at home of evidence that might prove useful one day: his passport with stamps and visas, travel records and a handwritten Chinese police document dated and imprinted with red-ink seals.

Omir Bekali displays a photo of his parents who he believes have now been interned in China (AP)
The document is the closest thing he has to an official acknowledgement that he suffered for eight months. It says he was held on suspicion of endangering national security; the last sentence declares him released without charge.

At first, Mr Bekali did not want his account published for fear that his sister and mother in China would be detained and sent to re-education.

But on March 10, back in China, the police took his sister, Adila Mr Bekali. A week later, on March 19, they took his mother, Amina Sadik. And on April 24, his father, Ebrayem.

Mr Bekali changed his mind and said he wanted to tell his story, no matter the consequences.

“Things have already come this far,” he said. “I have nothing left to lose.”

Additional reporting by AP

More about: | Xinjiang | China | Xi Jinping | Mao Zedong | Cultural Revolution | Kazakhstan | Communism | Pakistan | Turkey | Sharia | Human Rights Watch
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Retirement announcement

John and Donna

60155 Agate Road
Bend, OR 97702
Phone: 541-213-7771
May 30th, 2018
Dear Friends and Supporters,
You who have stood by us so faithfully all these years in prayer and financial support, thank you. This will be the last letter we will send out as supported missionaries. We plan to still update you about twice a year because we value our relationship with you and your prayers. We will be officially retiring as of July 1. BEE will not accept any contributions preferenced for our support after June 30. If there are any funds still in our account after June 30, BEE will use them to give us up to three months’ severance pay.

We have finished all our deputation travels. We loved visiting old friends, making new friends, and speaking at churches that have supported us for over three decades. But we both returned with chronic sinus infections. Please pray for health for us as we enter this new phase of life and ministry.

In addition to enjoying this beautiful area we moved to—hiking, biking, paddle boarding, kayaking, canoeing, cross-country skiing, and sitting out in our acre of woods reading, we are so excited to be able to devote ourselves to the ministries the Lord is opening up here in Central Oregon.

There are now 80 Great Country (GC) pilots-in-training, and another 50 should arrive by the end of the summer. Each of them will be trained in our local airport for 1 to 1½ years, enough time to build relationships and share the Lord. We have succeeded at keeping the class sizes small—eight students/class. The Lord keeps providing more and more Christian English teachers to help us. These teachers tell us that they are so excited to have this opportunity, and they have been organizing outings for the students to make it easier to share Christ. A local church has also gotten involved, with once a month meetings for the pilots. I would especially like to thank the brothers and sisters at the New Hyde Park Baptist Church in NY who never stopped praying that this opportunity would open up, even when I, Donna, had given up hope and had stopped praying. The Lord heard you.

Jasmine (the new believer from the GC-language Bible study), and her husband moved to Las Vegas, where Jasmine has already gotten involved in a GC church she really likes. Praise God! Please keep her in your prayers—she has an uphill battle with her American husband, who was the manager of a strip club when they lived here in Bend.

In addition to leading the GC-language Bible study, John is also leading the Bible study for the Bend Home Fellowship of our church. The participants really enjoy being part of the discussion Bible study—discussing Scripture and their lives in relation to Scripture.

One of the women from Donna’s previous Bible study has now started her own Bible study! Donna herself is hoping to start two new women’s Bible studies in September—one for post-churched neighbor women, and one for women in our church who need discipling. She has been praying about who she should invite to join these studies.

As many of you know, Donna has a passion to share the gospel with Americans as well as GC people. Please pray that she would find the best venues to get to know more unbelievers. Some of the ideas she will probably explore—joining a critique group with the Central Oregon Writers’ Guild; taking a Community College course; joining a Parks and Recreation hiking group.

Dragon Ride is frequently a best-seller on Amazon, and every 2-3 weeks Donna receives an email from a reader telling her how much his/her life was changed by reading it. Praise the Lord! Donna had hoped and prayed that the book would be a blessing to many people. There are some other possible opportunities coming from its publication. For example, after reading Dragon Ride, the former vice-president of Intervarsity Christian Fellowship recommended Donna to be a seminar speaker at this years’ Urbana Conference. We’ll see what happens.

A number of people have asked Donna to write another book—this one about her way of sharing Christ. So she has just started writing again!

Donna recently got a call from an American missionary who lives in the Great Country (GC). She knows hundreds, maybe thousands of GC people in the GC, especially college students. She told Donna that she recently started to use Donna’s method of “asking questions in evangelism” and the results have been amazing! We love when the work goes on without us.

We would like you to be much in prayer for our brothers and sisters in the GC. Persecution of the “house churches” (non-government churches) has increased, with landlords of the facilities being pressured, and water and electricity being cut off in an attempt to force closures of the house churches. One pastor, who was called in by the police, boldly told them that if they shut down his church, the church people would meet in dozens of homes in small groups, so the police would never find them. So there was no point in closing the church. The crackdown is also affecting BEE training with the house churches of those who are taking the training being visited by the police, and second generation training classes being stopped. Even foreign missionaries are being affected. Student and work visas as well as work permits are hard to get, and at least one foreigners’ worship service was broken up when the police burst in. Please pray for courage, wisdom, and grace for the local GC believers and the GC missionaries as they face this nationwide crackdown. We suspect this is only the beginning.

In His care,

John and Donna

[Please do not publicly post this letter, and be careful with whom you share it. Send contributions to BEE World, Box 1329, Monument, CO 80132, and preference to account 022900.]

Jasmine ran away

John and Donna McAdams
60155 Agate Road
Bend, OR 97702
Phone: 541-213-7771
February 2018 [on 2018.2.16, lunar new year – they made no reference]

Dear Friends and Supporters,

Jasmine, one of the non-Christians who attended the GC-language Bible study a few times, has decided to follow the Lord! She had shown up one day last week on the doorstep of the Christian GC family who attend the study, suitcases in hand, because she had run away from her husband. (Jasmine and the Christian family had met at the Bible study.) The Christian family let her stay with them while she sorted out what to do, and in one late night discussion, they led her to the Lord. Please pray for her spiritual growth and her marriage.

The GC pilot ministry is expanding! Our group of 14 pilots is finishing their training and moving on. Eighty new GC pilots are beginning their training in our area, and we have been asked to train them in English! We can’t possibly teach that many, but the Lord has recently been making connections for us. So far we have five teams of Christian teachers. We are hoping to reduce class sizes for better language learning and more effective pre-evangelism discussions. Please pray for more teams of committed Christians to teach. One church is also trying to set up “friendship families” for the pilots so the families could invite the pilots to their homes in small groups to become friends and share the gospel.

We have visited nine states and DC since September, and we plan to visit five states from now until May. Because of requests for Donna’s message, “Asking Questions in Evangelism,” she made an audio recording of the talk. If you are interested in listening to it, please contact us for the link.

Dragon Ride is selling well, has great reviews, and in November and December was an Amazon best seller in four categories! Praise the Lord! Non-Christians have been reading it as well—a Muslim, Mormons high up in the Mormon church, Japanese in Hawaii, and even a GC couple living in the GC! Unbelievers weren’t the original target audience, but please pray! If any of you have any connections with homeschooling networks that would be blessed by Dragon Ride, please let us know.

Thanks to the generous giving of many, our financial needs for 2017 were met! We will remain on support through BEE World until we retire at the end of June.

In His care,
John and Donna
[Please do not publicly post this letter, and be careful with whom you share it. Send contributions to BEE World, Box 1329, Monument, CO 80132, and preference to account 022900.]